By Dr. V. Kindt
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Extra resources for Psilocybinhaltige Pilze
7 Diagram of the main DA pathways in the brain. Note the discrete localisation of the neuronal cell bodies in the substantia nigra, VTA and median eminence. ■ Tuberoinfundibular DA pathway—neurones in the median eminence that project to the pituitary. - Release of DA inhibits prolactin release via activation of D2 receptors. g. antipsychotics) increase prolactin secretion causing amenorrhoea, etc. Synthesis and metabolism ■ DA is formed by the hydroxylation of tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylanine (DOPA) by tyrosine hydroxylase followed by decarboxylation to DA by DOPA decarboxylase.
These pathways are considered important in schizophrenia and an important site of action for antipsychotic drugs (D2 and D4 antagonists). - They are also strongly associated with motivation, reward behaviour and dependence produced by amfetamines (which release DA), cocaine (which blocks DA reuptake) and opioids, cannabinoids and nicotine, all of which indirectly increase the firing of DA release in the terminal regions. 7 Diagram of the main DA pathways in the brain. Note the discrete localisation of the neuronal cell bodies in the substantia nigra, VTA and median eminence.
7 Different pattern of responses to agonists. ■ Agonists are drugs that mimic endogenous neurotransmitters. ■ Most drugs bind reversibly to receptors and in the simplest case the response is proportional to the fraction of receptors occupied (law of mass action). ■ As the concentration of a drug increases the response increases until all the receptors are occupied giving a dose-response curve as shown in Fig. 7. When maximum effects are achieved without full receptor occupancy there are said to be spare receptors.