By Anja du Plessis
This publication promotes greater realizing and know-how of South Africa' major water difficulties by way of describing the country's and particularly the higher Vaal River’s water assets. it's a “go-to” ebook for college kids, pros and typical voters whilst info is needed in regards to the country's and extra particularly the higher Vaal River’s freshwater assets. It highlights the main difficulties and hazards which must be addressed and provides a practical and real illustration of the present water affairs.
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Additional info for Freshwater Challenges of South Africa and its Upper Vaal River: Current State and Outlook
These organic chemicals are produced through the application of pesticides, through industrial processes and through the breakdown of products and other chemicals. The broken-down material and dissolved particles enter water bodies through surface water and groundwater (Carr and Neary 2008). Pollutants such as pesticides and other non-metallic toxins are used all over the globe and are transported over long distances to areas where they have never even been produced (UNEP GEMS WATER 2009). These organic contaminants are also referred to as POPs and commonly contaminate groundwater through percolating down and carrying leachates through the soil.
DDT was used to protect people from insect-borne diseases such as malaria and typhus and was a valuable public health tool. This has however led to widespread environmental contamination and the accumulation of DDT in humans and wildlife. High levels of DDT in certain birds of prey have found to cause their eggshells to thin to such an extent that they could not produce live offspring. POPs also cause adverse human health effects by affecting reproductive, developmental, behavioural, neurologic, endocrine and immunologic effects.
Accessed 10 May 2016 References 41 Bosman C, Kidd M (2009). In: Strydom HA, King ND (eds) Environmental management in South Africa: chapter 17: water pollution, 2nd edn. Juta Brad T (2013) China’s industrial water pollution concealing tricks (photo report). http://www. html. Accessed 9 June 2016 Briggs D (2003) Environmental pollution and the global burden of disease. Br Med Bull 68:1–24 Cairns JJ, Lanza GR (1972) Pollution controlled changes in algal and protozoan communities. In: Ralph Mitchell (ed) Water pollution microbiology, Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp 245–272 Carpenter SR, Caraco NF, Correll DL, Howarth RW, Sharpley AN, Smith VH (1998) Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen.