Read e-book online Biofuels for Transport: An International Perspective PDF

By OECD Publishing

Within the absence of robust executive regulations, the IEA initiatives that the global use of oil in delivery will approximately double among 2000 and 2030, resulting in the same elevate in greenhouse gasoline emissions. Bio fuels, corresponding to ethanol, bio diese

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Extra resources for Biofuels for Transport: An International Perspective

Sample text

G. acid hydrolysis) processes is typically applied, which allows separation of the biomass into its cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin components. Some hemicellulose can be converted to sugars in this step, and the lignin removed. Next, the remaining cellulose is hydrolysed into sugars, the major saccharification step. Common methods are dilute and concentrated acid hydrolysis, which are expensive and appear to be reaching their limits in terms of yields. Therefore, considerable research is being invested in the development of biological enzymes that can break down cellulose and hemicellulose.

Traditional plant breeding techniques use a range of natural variability in plant species to increase productivity and hybrid vigour, but rates of improvement can be slow. Gene mapping can be used both for traditional breeding (to speed up the selection process) and for developing GE crops (Peelle, 2000). Although there is still considerable uncertainty, genetically modified crop genomes are expected to lead to major increases in yields, reductions in fertiliser requirements and improvements in pest-resistance.

Gasification typically involves using heat to break down the biomass and produce a “synthesis gas”, often composed of several compounds from which the H2 must afterwards be extracted. Gasification can be conducted using a variety of low, medium or high-temperature methods. These methods differ in several respects, including required pre-treatment (pyrolysis or torrefaction may be needed to partially break down the biomass and convert it into a form that is fed more easily to the gasifier) and post-gasification treatment (it may be steam reformed or partially oxidised, along with a “water-gas-shift” reaction to extract H2 from the synthesis gas).

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