Read e-book online An Ecosystem Approach to Sustainable Agriculture: Energy Use PDF

By Carl F. Jordan

Modern business agriculture isn't sustainable as a result of its heavy reliance on petroleum, a non-renewable resource of the strength utilized in farming, and due to toxins attributable to petroleum items akin to fertilizers and insecticides. A platforms research of farming means that agriculture should be extra sustainable whilst companies of nature, resembling nutrient recycling by way of soil micro-organisms and usual controls of bugs, change the companies now supplied through power from petroleum. Examples are drawn from the Southeastern united states, yet classes realized should be utilized world wide.

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Accessed 26 Nov 2012. Guariguata, M. R. (1990). Landslide disturbance and forest regeneration in the upper Luquillo mountains of Puerto Rico. Journal of Ecology, 78, 814–832. Gunderson, L. , & Holling, C. S. (2002). Panarchy: Understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Washington, DC: Island Press. References 37 Hall, C. S. (1995). Introduction: What is maximum power? In C. S. T. Odum (pp. XIII–XVI). Niwot: University of Colorado Press. IAASTD. (2009). International assessment of agricultural knowledge, science and technology for development: Global report.

84 for corn. 6 (Pimentel and Pimentel 2008). 2, but for paddy rice, the yield is 20 cal (Steinhart and Steinhart 1974). The high yield of paddy rice is due to a unique service of nature. Rice paddies are flooded to control weeds, and also to allow the growth of the water fern azolla, which has a symbiotic relationship with cyanobacteria that fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. It is the weed control and the nitrogen availability that makes paddy rice so energy efficient. Energy yield efficiency for meat and poultry is low because energy has to travel an extra step through the food chain.

At low rates of energy input, energy use efficiency is high, but power output is low. As rates of energy input increase, power output increases rapidly, at least for a while. But at a certain point, the increase in power output as a function of energy input rate begins to slow down (Fig. 2). The speed of trucks provides an illustration. At a low speed (40 mph), fuel use efficiency (miles per gallon of gas) is high, but the generated horsepower of the truck is low. At high speeds (100 mph), fuel use efficiency is low, (a lot of the fuel energy is lost as heat and carbon pollution) but generated horsepower is high.

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