By Goran Bergman
I. creation 3
II. equipment 7
1. fabric and means of recording 7
2. movie research 7
three. The meteorological info 9
III. The identity of the migrants 10
IV. the rate and course of migration thirteen
1. the rate of flight and its dependence on a variety of exterior and internal
2. The path of migration and the standards affecting it 21
three. The effect of topographical elements at the path 36
V. The influence of meteorological components at the depth of migration 44
1. power and path of the wind 45
2. Cloudiness 47
three. Visibility 49
four. Temperature 50
VI. The geographical distribution of the migration 50
References fifty seven
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Additional info for An analysis of the spring migration of the Common Scoter and the Long-tailed Duck in southern Finland
On Scoter and the Long tailed Duck fly during their spring migration approximately in the direction 40° but are in addition subject to drift by wind, whereby the direction of the finally resulting movement varies between fairly wide limits. The wind also enters as an important factor for the ground speed. In addition, celestial orientation is necessarily dependent on a more or less clear sky. During the migratory period weather conditions may change continuously. Some condit ions are clearly favourable for migration, for instance, a SW wind directly increases ground speed, while on the other hand SE and �T\V winds result in lateral displacement with reference to the normal direction of migration.
Oo generally interrupt their migration for resting. This is evident from the daily rhythm of the migration at sea seen from the radar films. When these birds continue their migration, islands and capes of the Estonian coast in daylight give rise to narrow SW-NE zones with a higher intensity of migra tion than in the surrounding area. Especially marked is this effect at the island of Nargo. In calm weather it has been observed numerous times that from this island in daytime a stream of flocks with a high density moves tO\vards the Finnish coast and joins the migrants flying along the coast in the region around Soderskar lighthouse.
1° for the rest of the material for 1962. 48. s0 as compared with Although rather uncertain, being based on a fairly restricted number of observations, this difference in direction of about 6° raises a question of some importance. oo. Their arrival time in the area in SE Finland can be calculated 200 km. \Vith a speed 2 hours, which is consistent from the observed ground speed and the distance, about of about 100 km /hr the flying time should be about with the observations since the wave of migrants reach the area between midnight and an hour after midnight.