Aircraft Icing Handbook by PDF

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Example text

If the aircraft arrives at the gate with flaps extended, they should be inspected and, if necessary, de-iced before retraction. The operating manual for certain aircraft types may allow take-off with frost on certain parts of the aircraft. It is important to note that the rate of ice formation is considerably increased by the presence of an initial deposit of ice. If icing conditions are expected to occur along the taxi and take-off path, ensure that all ice and frost is removed before departure.

High humidity occurs in all forms of precipitation, cloud and fog, or in air close to these conditions. 3 Categories For convenience, helicopter icing is considered under three general headings, in the following order of priority: (a) Rotor system icing. (b) Engine icing. (c) Airframe icing. 1 Icing Effects on Main Rotor System The primary effect of ice on the rotor system is drag; the secondary effect is loss of lift due to the change in aerodynamic efficiency of the blade. The way in which ice forms on the blade is affected by five main factors: (a) Temperature.

G. left wing/right wing) must receive the same, complete treatment. Engines are usually not running or are at idle during treatment Air conditioning should be selected OFF. The APU may be run for electrical supply but the bleed air valve should be closed. All reasonable precautions must be taken to minimise fluid entry into engines, other intakes/outlets and control surface cavities. Do not spray de- icing/anti- icing fluids directly onto hot brakes, wheels, exhausts or thrust reversers. De-icing/anti- icing fluid should not be directed into the orifices of pilot heads, static vents or directly onto angle-of-attack sensors.

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