By James F. Blanchard, Han Kang, Faran Emmanuel, Sushena Reza Paul,
South Asia's HIV epidemic is extremely heterogeneous. for that reason, trained, prioritized, and powerful responses necessitate an knowing of the epidemic variety among and inside of international locations. additional unfold of HIV in South Asia is preventable. the longer term dimension of South Asia's epidemic depends on an efficient two-pronged procedure: to begin with, at the scope and effectiveness of HIV prevention courses for intercourse employees and their consumers, injecting drug clients and their sexual companions, and males having intercourse with males and their different sexual companions; and secondly, at the effectiveness of efforts to deal with the underlying socio-economic determinants of the epidemic, and to lessen stigma and discrimination in the direction of humans accomplishing excessive threat behaviors, usually marginalized in society, in addition to humans dwelling with HIV and AIDS. This evaluation was once undertaken to supply a foundation for rigorous, evidence-informed HIV coverage and programming in South Asia.
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Extra resources for AIDS in South Asia: Understanding And Responding to a Heterogenous Epidemic (Health, Nutrition and Population Series)
The opposite trend occurred in Maharashtra, where a slightly greater proportion of rural females (42 percent) than rural males (38 percent) reported using condoms with nonregular partners. Injecting Drug Users Drug use patterns vary greatly across the South Asia Region. Sri Lanka is estimated to have 40,000 to 50,000 drug users (Pattern of Drug Abuse 2003). One cross-sectional study highlights that among individuals arrested for drug-related offenses, about 75 percent of males and 100 percent of females preferred heroin, and nearly 60 percent of males and over 95 percent of females had used drugs for at least six years (Pattern of Drug Abuse 2003).
In contrast, HIV prevalence rates among MSM in Goa, Mumbai, and Tamil Nadu have ranged from 2 percent to over 50 percent in samples at different times. Those extreme fluctuations may be due to a combination of HIV Prevalence and Spread • 33 small sample sizes and different sampling methodologies from year to year. Much more data are needed to understand the extent to which the HIV epidemic has reached the MSM community in general in Goa, Mumbai, and Tamil Nadu. Injecting Drug Users The efficiency of HIV transmission through injecting drug use behaviors and networks can accelerate the growth of HIV epidemics among IDUs.
No data regarding HIV prevalence in the general population are available from Nepal, which vitiates a confident interpretation of the country’s HIV epidemic. In Pakistan, HIV prevalence in the general population remains close to zero (as approximated using professional blood donors, though notwithstanding the potential upward bias of estimates based on this group). In Bangladesh, recent studies among samples of rural men and women living in the Matlab region and among a “general” population of women attending a health care clinic in Dhaka have not found any HIV cases (NASP 2005).