*The language syllabus follows the communicative skills of the scholars *Suitable to be used with any path *Teacher's notes aid you play every one video game *Photocopiable ideas sheets advisor the scholars
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Additional resources for Advanced Communication Games: A Collection of Games and Activities for Intermediate and Advanced Students of English
However, as the code rate decreases, more bandwidth and a more difficult bit synchronization are required. For convolutional codes of rate two trellis branches enter each state. For higher-rate codes with information bits per branch, trellis branches enter each state and the computational complexity may be large. This complexity can be avoided by using punctured convolutional codes. These codes are generated by periodically deleting bits from one or more output streams of an encoder for an unpunctured code.
Each block of information bits are written successively into the interleaver as columns and rows. Encoder 2 converts each column of interleaver bits into a codeword of bits. The multiplexer passes the bits of each of encoder-1 codewords, but only the parity bits of encoder-2 codewords so that information bits are transmitted only once. 4. 18, and only slight modifications of the SISO decoding algorithms are required. Long, high-rate turbo BCH codes approach the Shannon limit in performance, but their complexities are higher then those of turbo convolutional codes of comparable performance .
Concatenated codes may be classified as classical concatenated codes, turbo codes, or serially concatenated turbo codes. 15. In the most common configuration for classical concatenated codes, an inner code uses binary symbols and a ReedSolomon outer code uses nonbinary symbols. The outer-encoder output symbols are interleaved, and then these nonbinary symbols are converted into binary symbols that are encoded by the inner encoder. In the receiver, a grouping of the binary inner-decoder output symbols into nonbinary outer-code symbols is followed by symbol deinterleaving that disperses the outer-code symbol errors.