Read e-book online A Theory of Justice (Revised Edition) PDF

By John Rawls

because it seemed in 1971, John Rawls's A idea of Justice has turn into a vintage. the writer has now revised the unique variation to resolve a couple of problems he and others have present in the unique booklet.

Rawls goals to precise an important a part of the typical center of the democratic tradition--justice as fairness--and to supply an alternative choice to utilitarianism, which had ruled the Anglo-Saxon culture of political suggestion because the 19th century. Rawls substitutes the perfect of the social agreement as a extra passable account of the fundamental rights and liberties of electorate as loose and equivalent people. "Each person," writes Rawls, "possesses an inviolability based on justice that even the welfare of society as a complete can't override." Advancing the information of Rousseau, Kant, Emerson, and Lincoln, Rawls's concept is as strong this day because it used to be while first released.

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Extra info for A Theory of Justice (Revised Edition)

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There is a further point in this connection. In utilitarianism the satisfaction of any desire has some value in itself which must be taken into account in deciding what is right. 15 We are to arrange institutions so as to obtain the greatest sum of satisfactions; we ask no questions about their source or quality but only how their satisfaction would affect the total of well-being. Social welfare depends directly and solely upon the levels of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of individuals. Thus if men take a certain pleasure in discriminating against one another, in subjecting others to a lesser liberty as a means of enhancing their self-respect, then the satisfaction of these desires must be weighed in our deliberations according to their intensity, or whatever, along with other desires.

This standard, however, is not to be confused with the principles defining the other virtues, for the basic structure, and social arrangements generally, may be efficient or ineffi2. An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, sec. III, pt. I, par. 3, ed. L. A. Selby-Bigge, 2nd edition (Oxford, 1902), p. 184. 8 2. The Subject of Justice cient, liberal or illiberal, and many other things, as well as just or unjust. A complete conception defining principles for all the virtues of the basic structure, together with their respective weights when they conflict, is more than a conception of justice; it is a social ideal.

Classical Utilitarianism There are many forms of utilitarianism, and the development of the theory has continued in recent years. I shall not survey these forms here, nor 8. ” La Valeur de la science (Paris, Flammarion, 1909), p. 27. 19 Justice as Fairness take account of the numerous refinements found in contemporary discussions. My aim is to work out a theory of justice that represents an alternative to utilitarian thought generally and so to all of these different versions of it. I believe that the contrast between the contract view and utilitarianism remains essentially the same in all these cases.

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