New PDF release: A manual of radioactivity,

By Georg von Hevesy

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It begins to diminish. Corresponding to complete absorption, a j8-particle of energy represented in air about 10,000 pairs of ions; by 300,000 to 350,000 volts produces mean value of the number of pairs of ions produced per 1 cm. of path is about 70 at normal pressure. -rays of 39 per cent of the velocity of light (43,000 volts) it has been possible to establish by means of the cloud method the formation of the 130 primary ions per cm. of the path of the particle. If we take into f The physical meaning of this difference of potential is that the /J-particle would have acquired the same kinetic energy if it had traversed a difference of potential of this magnitude, and without having an initial velocity.

P. 37). This behaviour is accounted for by the fact that the j8-rays emitted by a radio-element do not possess a definite velocity like the a-rays, but show a continuous velocity spectrum, which is discussed on p. 104. With the aid of a magnetic field the continuous spectrum can be analysed into its component velocities, and in this way the intensity of the individual components can be evaluated. The energy distribution in the continuous j8-ray spectrum of a few radio-elements can be seen from Fig.

In both cases a fraction of the rays is scattered in traversing the aluminium foil, but whereas in the former case almost the whole of the scattered radiation also enters the electroscope, in the latter it does not. intense scattering experienced by /J-rays even when they pass through quite thin sheets of aluminium is shown very clearly in the photographs reproduced in Fig. 21 (Plate II).

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