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Extra info for A-10 Warthog
10. The final drive has a constant gear ratio. The common practice of requiring direct drive (nonreducing) in the gearbox to be in the highest gear determines this ratio. The gearbox provides a number of gear ratios ranging from three to five for passenger cars and more for heavy commercial vehicles that are powered with gasoline or diesel engines. 17 Tractive effort characteristics of a gasoline-engine-powered vehicle. , the smallest ratio). , the maximum ratio) is determined by the requirement of the maximum tractive effort or the gradeability.
Darracq on his 1897 coupe. This method allows recuperating the vehicle’s kinetic energy while braking and recharging the batteries, which greatly enhances the driving range. It is one of the most significant contributions to electric and HEV technology as it contributes to energy efficiency more than anything else in urban driving. In addition, among the most significant EVs of that era was the first vehicle ever to reach 100 km. It was “La Jamais Contente” built by Frenchman Camille Jenatzy. Note that Studebaker and Oldsmobile got started in business by building EVs.
By summing the moments of all the forces about point R (center of the tire–ground area), the normal load on the front axle Wf can be determined as Wf = MgLb cos α − (Trf + Trr + Fw hw + Mghg sin α + Mhg dV/dt) . 14) L Similarly, the normal load acting on the rear axle can be expressed as Wr = MgLa cos α + (Trf + Trr + Fw hw + Mghg sin α + Mhg dV/dt) . 15) L For passenger cars, the height of the center of application of aerodynamic resistance, hw , is assumed to be near the height of the gravity center of the vehicle, hg .